Baby Rat Snake: Facts, Diet, Habitat & Pictures in 2024

Last updated on March 26th, 2024 at 07:35 pm

If you’re a reptile enthusiast, you’ve likely encountered the baby rat snake. These small and captivating serpents belong to the Colubridae family and are known for their vibrant colours and intriguing behaviours.

Rat snakes are widely found across North America and are renowned for being non-venomous and non-aggressive. They play a crucial role in controlling rodent populations and are welcomed by farmers as natural allies in protecting crops from pests. With their impressive ability to devour rodents and insects, rat snakes are valuable assets in maintaining ecological balance and safeguarding agricultural yields.

Baby Rat Snake

Baby Rat Snake Characteristics

SizeSmaller compared to adult rat snakes
ColoursWide range of colours including shades of brown, grey, black, and reddish hues
PatternsStripes, blotches, or a combination of both
HabitatDiverse habitats such as forests, grasslands, and farmlands
AdaptabilityThrives in terrestrial and arboreal environments
DistributionFound in North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa
DietFeeds on small rodents such as mice, rats, and voles
Feeding HabitsSkilled hunters with sharp teeth and a strong grip
ReproductionSexual maturity at around 2 to 3 years of age
MatingOccurs during spring or fall
EggsLaid by female rat snakes in secluded areas like rotting logs or underground burrows
Handling as PetsProvide suitable enclosures with appropriate temperature and humidity levels

What Is A Baby Rat Snake?

Rat snakes are a group of non-venomous snakes belonging to the Colubridae family. They are known for their impressive size, varied colours, and ability to control rodent populations. However, the classification of rat snakes has undergone significant changes in recent years due to advancements in molecular studies.

In 2002, herpetologist Urs Utiger proposed reclassifying North American rat snakes into the genus Pantherophis based on DNA differences discovered through molecular analysis. This proposal was met with mixed reactions from the scientific community. Some authorities, such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles (SSAR), adopted the new classification.

However, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), the governing body for scientific animal names, and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) does not recognize the genus Pantherophis for rat snakes.

What Do Rat Snakes Look Like?

Rat snakes display a wide range of appearances. They can have scars or stripes or be single-coloured, with variations of black, red, brown, yellow, gray, or black-and-white. They have slender bodies, wedge-shaped heads, and round pupils. Some species can reach lengths of 10 feet, although 4 to 6 feet is more common. Here are descriptions of a few common rat snake species.

1. Eastern Rat Snake/Black Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta or Pantherophis alleghaniensis): Shiny, primarily black snakes with white chins. They may have white bellies and visible spotted patterns in various colors. Juveniles are more blotchy with white or gray bodies.

2. Yellow Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta quadrivittata or Pantherophis alleghaniensis quadrivittata): The most common rat snake in the Florida peninsula. They exhibit a morph of the eastern rat snake, with yellow or orange hues throughout their bodies. They have yellow irises and four narrow brown stripes running down their backs.

3. Red Rat Snake (Elaphe guttatus or Pantherophis guttatus): Also known as the corn snake, they vary in colour. Red rat snakes have yellowish or orange bodies with large red scars on their backs, dark marks on their bellies, and a “V” shape on the tops of their heads.

4. Gray Rat Snake (Pantherophis slides or Elaphe slides): This is the longest snake in Canada, measuring up to 7 feet long. It has greyish colouring with black or dark grey scars on its backs and belly. Juveniles exhibit vivid patterns that fade somewhat with adulthood.

These descriptions highlight the distinctive characteristics of these rat snake species, showcasing the wide variety of appearances within this diverse group of snakes.

How Big Are Baby Rat Snakes?

Baby Rat Snake

Baby rat snakes hatch at around 10 to 15 inches long and five to ten grams in weight from clutches of half a dozen to two dozen eggs. These eggs are roughly two inches long, oblong, and have a soft, leathery shell like most snake eggs.

After coming out of brumation, a winter dormancy period, rat snakes breed from early to mid-spring to early to mid-summer. Female rat snakes select warm, dark, and protected locations like under stumps, inside hollow logs or abandoned burrows, or beneath leaf litter to lay their eggs.

Young rat snakes hatch about four to seven weeks later with minimal parental care. However, they are vulnerable to predators like raccoons, foxes, and hawks.

Baby Rat Snake Growth Chart

Age (Months)Length (Inches)Weight (Grams)

The above growth chart provides an overview of the typical growth progression for baby rat snakes in terms of length and weight over the first two years of their lives. It is important to note that individual growth rates may vary depending on various factors, including species, genetics, diet, and environmental conditions. Monitoring the growth of baby rat snakes can help ensure their healthy development and provide insights into their overall well-being.

Baby Rat Snake Habits and Lifestyle

Like their adult counterparts, baby rat snakes exhibit certain habits and have distinctive lifestyles. Here are some key aspects of their habits and lifestyle:

  • Solitary Creatures: Baby rat snakes are solitary animals, preferring to live and hunt alone rather than in groups or pairs.
  • Nocturnal Behavior: These snakes are primarily active during the night. They are well-adapted to low-light conditions and have excellent nocturnal vision.
  • Hide and Remain Still: Baby rat snakes tend to hide and remain motionless for extended periods. This behaviour helps them camouflage and avoid detection by potential predators or prey.
  • Limited Daily Movement: Similar to adult rat snakes, baby rat snakes do not have extensive daily movements. On average, they cover a distance of about 188 meters per day.
  • Tail-Shaking Behavior: Baby rat snakes may exhibit tail-shaking behaviour when agitated or threatened. Although silent, this action can resemble the sound of a rattlesnake when it occurs among dry leaf litter. This behaviour can lead to misidentification and provides a defence mechanism for the snake.
  • Non-Aggressive Nature: Baby rat snakes generally have a calm and non-aggressive disposition. While they may bite if they feel threatened, they typically avoid confrontation and prefer to retreat or remain hidden.
  • Hibernation: Like many reptiles, baby rat snakes undergo a period of hibernation during the colder months. They seek suitable hibernation sites, such as rocky slopes or underground caves, where they remain dormant until the weather becomes more favourable.

What Can You Feed A Baby Rat Snake?

Snake is eating the mouse

If you have a baby rat snake, you might wonder about its dietary needs. Fortunately, several options are available to ensure proper nutrition for your snake.

One option is to feed the baby rat snake live food, such as small insects like crickets or worms. Another option is to offer small rodents, such as pinkie mice, which are newborn mice.

When feeding live food, it is crucial to closely supervise the feeding process to prevent potential harm to your snake. Alternatively, you can choose the safer route of feeding your baby rat snake frozen/thawed food. This eliminates the risk of injury associated with live prey.

Small snakes, pinkie mice, and other appropriately sized small rodents are excellent meal options. Before feeding, thaw the rodent and present it on a plate or dish for your snake to consume. Remember to select prey items suitable for your snake’s mouth size to avoid any health issues in the future.

It is important to exercise caution and provide an appropriately sized meal to avoid overfeeding or offering prey that is too large for your snake to consume comfortably. Ensuring a balanced and suitable diet is essential for the health and well-being of your baby rat snake.


Baby rat snakes are captivating reptiles known for their non-venomous nature and diverse colours and patterns. They play a crucial role in controlling rodent populations and are valued allies to farmers. With their docile behavior and ability to mimic rattlesnakes, they intrigue and fascinate. Understanding their growth, habits, and dietary needs helps ensure their well-being. Whether in the wild or as pets, baby rat snakes offer a unique and rewarding experience for reptile enthusiasts.


1. Are baby rat snakes venomous?

No, baby rat snakes are non-venomous. They do not possess venom glands or fangs like venomous snakes.

2. Can I keep a baby rat snake as a pet?

Yes, baby rat snakes can make great pets. However, it is important to research their specific care requirements and provide a suitable enclosure, proper diet, and environmental conditions.

3. How often should I feed my baby rat snake?

The feeding frequency for baby rat snakes depends on their age and size. Generally, they can be fed every 5-7 days, adjusting the prey size according to the snake’s capability.

4. How long do baby rat snakes typically live?

Baby rat snakes, like adult rat snakes, can have a lifespan of 15-20 years or even longer with proper care.


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