Animals That Gnaw Their Food (9 Examples & Pictures)

Last updated on November 30th, 2023 at 12:50 am

Gnaw animals and the immediate image is that of long-toothed mammals – rodents. The term “rodent” has its roots in the Latin word “Rodere,” signifying the essence of gnawing deeply embedded in their nature.

All rodents showcase their might through strong incisors, not just for consuming hard foods like woody plants, walnuts, and almonds but also as potent tools for defense against predators. This dual functionality adds complexity to their role in the animal kingdom.

Regular gnawing isn’t a casual habit; it’s a lifesaving rhythm for rodents. It prevents issues like breakage or overgrowth of incisors, a scenario that could lead to the animal’s inability to eat normally and, ultimately, its demise.

Whether driven by a curiosity about animal eating habits or deciphering gnaw marks in your house, the revelation is astonishing – a multitude of animals, including gerbils and rodent-like creatures, employ incisor teeth as culinary tools.

Without further ado, let’s step into the enthralling world of animals that gnaw. From iconic rodents to a diverse array of creatures embracing the art of gnawing, join us on this journey as we unveil the fascinating realm where teeth transform into tools for survival.

Which Animals Gnaw Their Food?

Rodents, in their unique way, gnaw their food to maintain their ever-growing teeth, a phenomenon akin to human hair growth. The continuous growth of their teeth necessitates constant gnawing to keep them appropriately dulled down. Due to the arrangement of their teeth and the way they grow, gnawing becomes a natural behavior during meals.

Gnawing isn’t solely about consuming food; it serves a dual purpose for these animals. It’s a preventative measure to stop their teeth from growing outside of their mouths, a condition that could become uncomfortable. This unique dental maintenance ritual showcases the adaptive nature of gnawing animals.

Examples of Animals That Gnaw

Beavers

Scientific Name: Castor
Diet: Herbivores

Beavers, renowned as nature’s master gnawers, are often in the spotlight, especially in cartoons that vividly depict their gnawing prowess. Armed with large teeth, they skillfully gnaw on wood and food, showcasing their unique ability to use their incisors both at the front and the back.

These gnawing experts predominantly inhabit rivers and lakes, with North America being their primary domain and a scattered presence in Europe. Beavers are true herbivores, displaying a culinary preference for woody plants, fruits, roots, herbs, and various vegetation.

Beavers stand out as Mother Nature’s architects, employing their teeth as primary tools for constructing dams and homes. Their engineering feats involve cutting down wood to size and utilizing their powerful incisors to create structures that define their habitat.

Adult beavers exhibit an astounding ability to chop down a 10-foot tree in less than 10 minutes. Annually, these rodents leave a mark by felling over 200 trees. Their technique involves standing on their hind legs, embracing the tree with their front legs, and employing their formidable incisors to swiftly cut down the tree.

Squirrels

Scientific Name: Sciuridae
Diet: Omnivores

Squirrels, charming yet potentially damaging creatures, belong to the rodent family, where their incisors take center stage in the “gnawing” phenomenon. These persistent animals are known for their insistent gnawing, which can impact someone’s property.

As tree-climbing rodents, squirrels have a diverse diet, earning them the title of omnivores. While they consume both meat and plants, their preferred foods include fungi, seeds, walnuts, peanuts, and various nut fruits. These bushy-tailed creatures are adept at storing food around their territories.

Squirrels are ubiquitous, with over 200 different species found worldwide. The Indian giant squirrel claims the title of the largest, reaching an impressive 36 inches (1 meter) in size, while the diminutive African pygmy squirrels measure a mere 5 inches (13 cm).

Possessing 20 teeth in total, squirrels, as gnawing animals, prioritize their specialized incisors. These incisors are vital to their survival, playing a crucial role in their ability to gnaw, eat, and navigate their environments. Without these specialized incisors, squirrels would face significant challenges in their quest for sustenance.

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Rats

Scientific Name: Rattus
Diet: Omnivores

When a home is plagued by rats or pests, the telltale signs often emerge in the form of distinctive gnawing marks on wooden items. These unwelcome guests leave their mark through bites and indentations on moldings or furniture, revealing the silent intrusion into a person’s living space.

Rat teeth, akin to hair, continually grow, presenting a unique challenge. Their gnawing behavior is less about eating or stimulation and more about maintaining dental health. Gnawing serves the crucial purpose of dulling their teeth and preventing them from growing excessively, a necessity for their well-being.

Rats, classified as medium-sized rodents, are ubiquitous, thriving in every corner of the planet except Antarctica. Despite their association with filth, these creatures are surprisingly clean, dedicating several hours each day to grooming. Their diet is incredibly diverse, encompassing grains, fruits, seeds, and nuts.

What sets rats apart is their astonishing gnawing capability. Beyond wood and aluminum, these creatures can cut through concrete and steel. With teeth growing up to 5 inches (12.7 cm) annually, it’s no surprise that rats incessantly gnaw on various materials, showcasing their relentless quest to manage their dental growth.

Guinea Pigs

Scientific Name: Cavia porcellus
Diet: Herbivores

Guinea pigs, often kept as cherished house pets, are not just adorable companions; they are petite herbivorous gnawers. When given the freedom to roam, these delightful creatures exhibit a penchant for gnawing on wooden items, a behavior driven by the continual growth of their teeth.

Similar to other rodents, guinea pigs’ teeth grow incrementally each day. To ensure their comfort, guinea pigs instinctively gnaw on objects to naturally dull their teeth. This gnawing behavior extends to their approach to eating, showcasing their need for dental maintenance.

True vegetarians and guinea pigs indulge in a diet centered around fruits and vegetables. Contrary to the misconception of having only two pairs of incisors, guinea pigs possess a total of 20 teeth. Notably, their teeth are white, distinguishing them from other rodents with yellowed teeth.

For those lucky enough to have a guinea pig as a pet, ensuring their dental well-being is crucial. Offering twigs and branches for gnawing helps these tiny rodents naturally wear down their teeth, promoting both dental health and the joy of observing their natural behaviors.

Muskrats

Scientific Name: Ondatra zibethicus
Diet: Omnivores

Muskrats, medium-sized rodents, thrive near wetlands, lakes, ponds, and streams. Weighing up to 4 pounds and measuring 8 to 10 inches plus their distinctive half-length tails, muskrats exhibit short brown fur, blending seamlessly into their surroundings. Renowned for their semi-aquatic lifestyle, these creatures spend most of their time in the water, showcasing an impressive ability to hold their breath for up to 15 minutes.

At Evergreen Nature Center, a muskrat family calls the den at the edge of Evergreen Lake home. Accustomed to boat traffic and nature center visitors, these neighborhood muskrats are a delightful sight, actively engaged in the business of raising and feeding their families

Found in Europe, North America, South America, and Asia, muskrats thrive in a wide range of wetland habitats. Their primarily vegetarian diet, consisting of aquatic plants (95%), occasionally includes snails, small fish, and clams. Remarkably, muskrats have a unique dental feature – their incisors are located outside their mouths, enabling them to use their teeth underwater without inhaling water into their lungs.

Muskrats are adept swimmers, demonstrating their prowess in navigating aquatic environments. Their remarkable ability to hold their breath for an impressive 12 minutes further highlights their adaptation to a semi-aquatic lifestyle. In the world of rodents, muskrats stand out as resilient inhabitants of water-rich ecosystems.

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Marmots

Scientific Name: Marmota
Diet: Herbivores

Marmots, the architects of alpine landscapes, thrive on rocky slopes at higher altitudes, gracing places like Mt. Evans Road and occasionally venturing into lower altitudes, even the Evergreen area. With frosted brown hair, white-tipped, giving them a grizzled appearance, and distinctive white patches on their noses, these creatures weigh up to 11 pounds at maturity.

Living in burrows with family groups of up to twenty individuals, marmots are diurnal, and predominantly active during daylight. Their diet includes plant material, insects, and bird eggs, contributing to the intricate balance of their mountainous habitats.

Marmots spend about 80% of their lives below ground, navigating complex burrows with multiple entrances, tunnels, and exits. These burrows serve various purposes, from safe movements and breeding to food storage and hibernation. Generally peaceful, marmots can wield their knife-sharp incisors as protection if threatened.

As winter approaches, marmots double their weight, primarily feasting on forbs and grasses, ensuring they have the reserves to survive the cold months of hibernation that start around mid-to-late September. In the realm of gnawing creatures, marmots stand out as resilient alpine inhabitants, showcasing their adaptability and survival instincts in challenging mountain environments.

Hamsters

Scientific Name: Cricetinae
Diet: Omnivores

Small and adorable, hamsters, those delightful rodents, find their homes in warm and dry regions of Asia and Europe. Among the 19 hamster species, most lead nocturnal lives to evade potential predators.

Hamsters are omnivores, relishing both meat and plant-based fare. In the wild, seeds and grass top their menu. With 16 teeth in total, including 12 molars and 4 incisors, hamsters utilize both their legs and teeth for their impressive digging skills.

Uniquely, hamsters are among the select few animals born with their teeth intact, adding a fascinating aspect to their biology.

As rodents, hamsters are wired for gnawing rather than chewing, aligning them with their rodent counterparts like gerbils. This behavioral trait serves both functional and mental purposes. They gnaw on food for consumption and wooden objects for mental stimulation, showcasing an innate need to keep boredom at bay.

In the world of small wonders, hamsters stand out as both charming companions and fascinating creatures with their distinct behaviors and adorable antics.

Chipmunks

Image source Pixabay

Scientific Name: Tamias
Diet: Omnivores

Belonging to the squirrel family, chipmunks are another set of nature’s gnawing wonders. With 25 diverse species, primarily residing in North America, these small rodents bring both charm and challenges to their habitats.

Chipmunks, omnivores by nature, indulge in a varied diet comprising insects, frogs, worms, grass, shoots, and an array of plants. What makes chipmunks distinct is their cheek pouches, which serve as convenient storage for their foraged food.

Despite their cuteness, chipmunks are labeled as destructive pests, known for causing damage to gardens, houses, and cars by their persistent gnawing on various objects and materials.


Don’t be deceived by their small size; chipmunks, akin to squirrels, possess powerful gnawing abilities. Their teeth, designed for cutting and grinding hard foods like seeds and bird eggs, make them effective foragers and resilient inhabitants of the trees they call home. The larger chipmunk measures about 9 inches, including its tail, weighing approximately 2 ounces, while the Least chipmunk is a smaller counterpart, measuring around 7 ½ inches and weighing 1 to 1 ½ ounces. In the realm of gnawing animals, chipmunks prove that size does not diminish their tenacious gnawing capabilities.

Porcupines

Image source Pixabay

Scientific Name: Erethizon dorsatum
Diet: Herbivores

Full-grown porcupines, unmistakable with their needle-like quills, reach lengths of up to 32 inches and can weigh as much as 33 pounds. These slow-moving creatures sport quills made of keratin, akin to our fingernails, and sharp claws for efficient climbing and digging.

Porcupines find solace in tall trees, resting on sturdy branches close to the trunk. Their diet includes leaves, twigs, and bark, sometimes causing harm to the very trees they harvest from. Mostly nocturnal, these creatures occasionally venture out during the day.

Found in the forests and deserts of Asia, Europe, and America, porcupines claim the title of the third-largest rodents globally. As true vegetarians, they feast on twigs, herbs, leaves, and bark.

Porcupines are easily identified by the 30,000 quills adorning their backs, serving as a formidable defense shield against predators. In addition to their quill armor, they emit odors and clatter their teeth when faced with threats.

Despite their distinct features, porcupines share a familial bond with hamsters and rats. Their teeth, continuously growing, prompt them to gnaw on various objects, similar to how our hair grows continuously. Notably, porcupines exhibit a peculiar liking for gnawing on bones, showcasing the diverse habits of these fascinating creatures.

Final Words

As we conclude our journey through the fascinating world of gnawing animals, it’s essential to acknowledge the vast diversity that extends beyond our exploration. Creatures like Nutria, Leming, Pedetes, Kangaroo Rat, Gundi, Hystrix, Hutia, and others share the common thread of gnawing teeth within the rodent group.

For rodents, teeth aren’t just tools; they are paramount for survival. Any deviation, such as dental overgrowth, can lead to pain, impaired chewing, and, inevitably, death. Nature’s beauty and cruelty intertwine, emphasizing the critical task of gnawing rodents to maintain their iron-strong teeth.

Your journey into the rodent realm may have unveiled the intricate balance between adaptation and survival. As we navigate the complexities of nature, we encounter both the enchanting and the harsh realities. Thank you for joining us on this exploration. If you found this article intriguing, a similar read awaits you: Animals with Paws.

FAQs

1. Why do animals gnaw?

Gnawing is crucial for animals, especially rodents, to keep their teeth at a manageable length. Their teeth continually grow, and gnawing helps prevent overgrowth, ensuring proper function for eating and self-defense.

2. Are all animals that gnaw nocturnal?

No, not all animals that gnaw are nocturnal. While some, like rats and mice, are more active during the night, others, such as squirrels and chipmunks, exhibit diurnal behaviors, being active during the day.

3. Can animals die if they don’t gnaw regularly?

Yes, for many rodents, if they don’t gnaw regularly, it can lead to dental overgrowth, causing pain, inability to chew, and, eventually, death. Gnawing is essential for their survival.

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